Torção de reserva

Effect of Exercise

Exercise is also associated with increased contractility, thus, under normal conditions, is associated with a significant increase in both LVT and untwist (Table 2). Importantly, young healthy individuals possess twist reserve mechanisms, by which LVT increases significantly at incremental exercise loads.18 Exercise twist reserve is a mechanism by which the heart increases its pumping abilities to be able to meet the increasing metabolic needs with exercise. Long-term physical training reduces resting LVT and untwist, thereby increasing the range of exercise twist reserve mechanism.19 The type of training has varying effects on LVT. Endurance training (eg, marathon runners) increases all resting myocardial mechanics, including apical rotational velocity, LVT, and untwist with reduced age-related effects on twist–untwist mechanics.20 Strength training (eg, weight lifters), however, is not known to be associated with these differences. Exercise-related twist reserve becomes blunted by age and in the presence of myocardial dysfunction. In the case presented above, the inability to increase LVT with exercise suggests the loss of exercise twist reserve, which was further associated with the blunted untwist at peak exercise.

Efeito do Exercício
O exercício também está associado ao aumento da contratilidade, portanto, em condições normais, está associado a um aumento significativo tanto no LVT quanto na destorção (Tabela 2). É importante ressaltar que indivíduos jovens saudáveis ​​possuem mecanismos de reserva de torção, pelos quais o LVT aumenta significativamente em cargas de exercício incrementais.18 A reserva de torção de exercício é um mecanismo pelo qual o coração aumenta sua capacidade de bombeamento para ser capaz de atender às crescentes necessidades metabólicas com exercícios. O treinamento físico de longo prazo reduz o LVT em repouso e a torção, aumentando assim a amplitude do mecanismo de reserva da torção do exercício.19 O tipo de treinamento tem efeitos variáveis ​​sobre o LVT. O treinamento de resistência (por exemplo, corredores de maratona) aumenta toda a mecânica do miocárdio em repouso, incluindo velocidade rotacional apical, LVT e destorção com efeitos relacionados à idade reduzidos na mecânica de torção-destorção.20 O treinamento de força (por exemplo, levantadores de peso), no entanto, não é conhecido estar associado a essas diferenças. A reserva de torção relacionada ao exercício torna-se embotada com a idade e na presença de disfunção miocárdica. No caso apresentado acima, a incapacidade de aumentar o LVT com o exercício sugere a perda da reserva de torção do exercício, que foi ainda associada com a torção embotada no pico do exercício.

O M Color não acabou


The present study shows strain rate propagation to be a measure of filling time, but flow propagation to be a function of both flow velocity and strain rate propagation. Thus flow propagation is not a simple index of diastolic function in delayed relaxation.

Mechanisms of PH in Aortic and Mitral Valve Disease

Stress echocardiography studies have shown that exercise PH (typically defined as systolic PAP > 60 mmHg) is associated with the future occurrence of symptoms in asymptomatic patients with at least moderate degenerative MR (44), cardiac events in patients with secondary MR (45), and cardiac events in asymptomatic patients with severe AS 

Lâminas das Carótidas

Carotid wall sublayers and their association with atherosclerosis in hypertensive subjects 

L.F.R Carvalho-RomanoR.P BonafeL.R PaimE.R MarquesC.F.L VegianR.P SchreiberA.C SpositoJ.R Matos-SouzaW Nadruz


MT is the main determinant of carotid IMT in hypertensive subjects. Conversely, IT showed stronger correlation and greater discriminatory value to identify atherosclerotic plaques than MT and IMT. These findings suggest that carotid IT may be a more accurate marker of atherosclerosis that MT or IMT in hypertensive subjects.

Vamos parar de medir tudo junto na IMT???

Cada lâmina têm sua história.

3D ou 2D?

. The examinations were performed on an EPIQ
7 ultrasound machine (Philips) with an X5 transducer. The
images for volume and LVEF assessment were obtained by the
semiautomatic 2D method in four- and two-chamber apical
windows. Additionally, the apical three-chamber view was
obtained to calculate the GLS. Reference points were defined
in the mitral annulus (septal and lateral, anterior and inferior)
and in the apex at each of the windows. From these reference
points, the semiautomated aCMQ software (Philips) detected
the systolic and diastolic LV endocardial borders, providing
LVEF, ESV, and EDV estimates

Images were obtained by the automatic 3D method in
the four-chamber apical window during controlled apnea
to estimate LVEF and volumes. After acquisition, the images
were analyzed by the HeartModel software, which uses an
adaptive analytical algorithm to automatically detect the
interface between the endocardial borders and the blood.
At the touch of a single button on the HeartModel’s screen,
the software automatically calculated LVEF and volumes