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Early Bioprosthetic Valve Failure: Mechanistic Insights via Correlation between Echocardiographic and Operative Findings



  • Fibrin deposition on the nonflow surface of a valve can cause stenosis.

  • Subvalvular pannus can cause stenosis, and pannus can cause regurgitation by retracting leaflets.

  • Pannus may be difficult to appreciate on echocardiography unless extensive or combined with thrombus.

  • Primary perforations or tears can result in eccentric regurgitant jets.

  • Endocarditis must be excluded in cases of thrombosis or leaflet tear.

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